Open both these documents in Photoshop. Learn how to export a transparent background in after effects of your motion graphics and videos. One of the quickest ways to add stylization to your video or images in After Effects is to use a blending mode. The four Matte modes use the source layer as a matte, much like the Track Matte function. My first bit of advice would be to actually open up After Effects and play around with the different modes. You can drag the composition directly onto the Render Queue panel, or select "Composition" > "Add to Render Queue". Long story short, the dark areas of Divide will make the image brighter. Select effect variant: Categories: Photo Filters & Effects In each case we have footage of the band playing the song a couple of times and footage of imagery that goes with the song we want them overlapped with artistic flair! Step 23: It was moving very slow and smooth looks great in this slow-motion clip. Next, you'll build from there on more complex ways to cause two images … Transitions in After Effect refers is a combination of effects which manipulates images, video footage by using a different type of technique for making a professional series of footage or images. If you scrub along the timeline you should see this transition taking place. I sometimes like to stop and take a look under the hood to better understand what After Effects is doing. There are tuts out there for beginners and experienced professionals so whatever your skill level, you can increase your understanding of visual effects, compositing or … The opposite of Darker Color. How to use animation effects to make images appear one after another. Hi, I wonder if I can blend two images as one image. It’s not about After Effects, but most of the modes also apply. Use the double exposure effect to blend two images (e.g. The Blending option is where we tell Photoshop how we want to blend the source image with the target image by choosing any of the blend modes from the drop-down list, while the Opacity option allows us to fine-tune our blending effect if needed by adjusting the opacity of the source image. Photoshop Blend Modes Explained – PhotoBlogStop However, even after years of using After Effects I’ve still found myself confused as to what each of them do and why the heck there are so many of them! This increases the contrast of the underlying layer via the color information of the source layer. This one is a bit strange too. The top layer will show through more than the bottom layer. However, Color Burn differentiates itself in a way that it blends with the background. It results in a very high contrast image. If you are working with explosions or fire, a very simple way to remove the solid black background is to change the Blend Mode to ‘Screen’ or ‘Add’. This decreases the contrast of the underlying layer via the color information of the source layer. For full access to all 18 lessons, including source files, subscribe with Elements. They break down some of the ways that modes can work. And you even can choose sunsets, flowers, landscapes, and more overlay effects to apply to your picture to create a unique double exposure masterpiece. In this article, we will show you how to blur edges in Photoshop. There are two issues here: one is a sad episode in after effects history and the other is just a switch that needs to be turned on . That's all, best of luck on your Motion Design projects. The bottom layer (underlying layer) will be a horizontal red gradient for most and for others it will be a photograph of a palm tree. Fortunately, doing this isn’t all that hard. As you can see in the video, datamoshing is a process of purposely corrupting footage to make the pixels act strangely. But as we’ve shown here in this tutorial, using the Overlay blend mode is an easy and highly effective way to add stunning creative effects to your image without having to spend hours learning techniques. Hue, Saturation and Luminance, That’s what! But if one of them is white it will have no effect. Trish and Chris Meyer talk about “The Math Behind the Modes”. This mode is just what it sounds like. If you are familiar with color effects, masking, blending mode capabilities for images in Photoshop, you can imagine that very similar effects can be applied to video footage with After Effects. Sometimes you may want to edit a portrait so that the edges blend to white or a transparent background. into After Effects. Why a palm tree? By default, the Blend Mode is set to ‘Normal’. It feels like it overlays the top image onto the bottom one. Sometimes when you bring a source into After Effects that has premultiplied alpha channels the edges of the alpha channel can be too bright. Gradient Maps and Blend Modes in After Effects – PremiumBeat. Then we could apply the transfer mode Add to create this stylized light leak look. It just means that the source layer will be the only color visible. All of the subtractive modes darken the resulting image. Glad you asked. And you even can choose sunsets, flowers, landscapes, and more overlay effects to apply to your picture to create a unique double exposure masterpiece. Here is an example image of every blend mode of the blend effect. However, you can use the transfer modes mentioned in this post in Premiere and Photoshop as well. or colored background.. Conversely, a fade-out is a technique that allows a video or image to gradually blend into a black, white, or colored background. 1. The top layer for this will also show through more than the bottom one. This does the same thing as Overlay but it’s much more intense. So how does After Effects render blending modes? We can dropbox … You can use this function to blend two images form your camera to create a transparent/double exposure effect. With just a few clicks you can radically change the look and feel of your composition. The bottom layer will be the one that comes through more so the stacking order is important. This mode is also about solving a specific problem. ... Kaz Yamaguchi April 5, 2010 at 9:01 pm. If the top layer (source layer) is white then it will not change anything. Below we’ve rounded up a list of our 6 favorite blending modes to use in After Effects. It will divide the color values and since the values for black and white are 0.0 and 1.0 respectively, the calculation will be dividing numbers that are less than 1. Hi, I wonder if I can blend two images as one image. Every layer in your composition in Adobe After Effects has a Blend Mode that determines how this layer is composited onto the layers below it. Try uploading your pics in different sequence, as it affects the result. First, choose the video composition that you'd like to render in After Effects. Blending modes (also called transfer modes) are ‘mini-effects’ that can easily be applied to any layer in your composition to make it interact with the layers beneath. Because palm trees are neat. The second image will be more visible, than the first one. If you have an asset that was shot on a black background (like fire) this is often a great way to composite it over another image. Part 1: How to Combine Clips in After Effects; Part 2: Best Free Alternatives of Adobe After Effects; Part 1: How to Combine Clips in After Effects Merging layers in After Effects is so easy to understand if you follow the steps below. Try uploading your pics in different sequence, as it affects the result. This is sometimes all you need to achieve the result you want. PNGs provide a cleaner alpha than QuickTime video out of Flash. So essentially it’s a bit “less trippy” than Difference. In fact, it takes much more time to read through the steps to create and use Overlay layers than it does to actually do it in practice. Feel free to use our practice file, or use your own. Adobe After Effects Visual Effects. Hi Photoshop community, I feel really annoyed and stupid. Multiply also does just what you might expect. that walks through all of the blending modes in Photoshop. So it’s sort of a mix of dodging and burning which is why it’s more subtle than Overlay. Classic Color Burn is from After Effects 5.0 and earlier. The included After Effects Parallax tutorial includes everything you need to create your first parallax. You can customize the hover effects based on your website’s design, to make it blend beautifully. Forums › Adobe After Effects › Blending two images. Then it will look at the next layer up in the timeline and do the same. Use Blending Modes in your editing software to remove backgrounds. The following example is an image with a green solid with the Overlay transfer modes applied. I typically use this transfer mode to simulate lighting in my composition such as lens flares or light leaks. Method 2: Layer Blend Modes. 9. By using masks and freeze frame, you can make people or objects disappear. Export your images from Photoshop to begin your final project in After Effects. This one actually adjusts the contrast of the bottom layer. If the layer is set to 100%, these modes make it so you only see the top layer. Select your text and copy (Command + C), switch over to After Effects, use the text tool (Command + T) and click in your comp, then Paste (Command + V) the text. It simply creates a dither pattern based on the opacity of the layer. Copying and Pasting the Mask Paths For Each Graphic. Yep, all of them. Experience the best TheBeat has to offer. If you apply a blending mode to a layer it will affect how it interacts with all of the layers beneath it. We have a more detailed explanation in our post How To Use Templates, Presets, Scripts, & Expressions. Add, as the name implies, adds its color values to the image below causing the image to greatly increase in brightness. With the path now created, I’ll click on the mask path attribute and simply copy it with Cmd/Ctrl+C.Now I can select the solid layer and press Cmd/Ctrl+V to paste the mask on the solid — along with the mask path keyframe. If the layer you are applying it to is bright then it will make the result darker. So we thought it'd be helpful to take a look at all of the blending modes in After Effects and explain what they do. At this point it will combine the top layer with all layers below it based on the chosen blending mode for that layer. The effects are entirely based on CSS3 and HTML5. If you want to read more about the difference between straight and premultiplied alpha channels there is some information on. Practically this can be used for any number of purposes. To actually key out the background and create an Alpha Channel in your clip, use a plugin such as Demult (from HitFilm Ignite Express) or Unmult (from Red Giant Universe). By arranging photographs in 3D space you can simulate the effect of flying through a real scene. While Multiply can be used for a variety of different circumstances, I typically use it to add grungy textures to my compositions. Adobe After Effects is a particularly flexible software which has for editing video and primary focus is on effects, motion graphics and video production, it is usually used to do some modifying as well. Created By: Video Copilot Notable Technique: Using color grades to blend footage. So 1 divided by .5 is the same as multiplying it by 2, aka doubling it. When it comes to combining images together, the best blend mode really depends on the two images you want to blend together. Now paste that mask path onto your solid layer.It should conform the composition-sized solid into the shape of your mask (as long as your mask is set … The rest of the modes all have an effect on transparency instead. In this course, After Effects Transparency and Blending, you'll learn about all the different ways to control transparency and blending in After Effects CC. Adobe After Effects – Set Extensions. Created By: Video Copilot Notable Technique: Using color grades to blend footage. is a perfect resource for all things After Effects. So it also does the dodging and burning based on the gray levels. Soft Light is very similar to the Overlay transfer mode. Is there any opensource library available for providing effects on Image. Instead, you want them to appear one by one. So they will do one thing to areas that are brighter than 50% gray and another to the areas that are lighter than 50% gray. The second image will be more visible, than the first one. In this tutorial you will learn how to to setup your render queue and … Thanks, android image-processing android-image image-editing. This will subtract the top layers color values from the bottom layer. For those new to After Effects or anyone who hasn’t dug too deep, expressions are bits of code that you can plug into various After Effects layers that, in turn, tell the program to do certain things without you having to hand animate them. First thing you will need is 2 images that will blend together nicely. After Effects In this quick tip, we’ll take a look at how to remove a black or white background from our footage or images to get an alpha channel. The second way we'll look at for blending two images together is by using Photoshop's layer blend … The effects are also scalable and work great on mobile devices. A full list of the blend modes and the corresponding mode properties are in the next section Here is another example using the exclusion mode. It's worth noting there is a more updated book by the Meyer’s on After Effects and Johnathan mentions it in this article on. So if a pixel has 35% blue on the top layer and 25% blue on the bottom layer and a mode adds them together it will output 65% blue (a brighter blue). In the first method, we use slow motion in between two keyframes which means starting the clip moves in normal speed and starts slow motion in between and ends with normal speed. Multiply is the exact opposite of Screen. When the Edit tool is used, the edit value overrides the existing color. Here’s the same layer on the same image with the Soft Light transfer mode applied instead of Overlay. The order you stack does matter with these because the bottom layer usually comes through more. Use "Screen" or "Add" for black backgrounds, and "Multiply" for white backgrounds. Back in After Effects move the current time indicator along to 1 second and with path 1 selected, hit paste. As mentioned, this preset contains three separate effects that work together to get you the best possible green screen key. Adobe Premiere Pro Blending Modes – Adobe You will typically use this blending mode in a VFX context as most VFX elements usually come either pre-keyed or on a black background. All the color and sizing, leading an kerning should stay the same as long as your comp in AE is the same size as the Artboard in Illustrator. 2. - You can use Undo or Redo Effects . Blue is the new Orange! With multiply, the color is scaled down by the darker of the two color values. Select the top layer and open the Blending Modes pop-up menu within the Layers panel. Experiment with different blending modes on the top layer to see how they affect the bottom layer. After you create your bokeh overlay, you can apply it to any image by using the Screen blending mode, which will hide dark pixels and reveal bright ones. This is another step into the extreme, even more than Hard Light. First, you'll start off easy learning about alpha channels and opacity. Learning from After Effects tutorials will sharpen your ability to use Adobe's powerful and versatile software. If I have a layer with a lot of white and I want to overlay the image and let all the white drop out I'll try Screen. If you are familiar with blending modes in Photoshop they work in the exact same way. You can also press 0 for 100% opacity, or quickly press 0 twice for 0%. This is useful because it can function as a matte for all layers below instead of just the one immediately below it as with track mattes. Classic has more colors in the transition tones than Difference and therefore makes for more saturated colors in those transition areas. If you duplicate a layer and apply Difference it will just result in a black image. However, Add goes one step further. The stacking order is important here because the bottom layer will come through more. Follow edited Dec 18 '17 at 20:09. Improve this question. It essentially replicates projecting multiple photos onto a single screen. Check your animation. After Effects is most commonly used for adding professional post-processing effects to videos, but the program can also be used to combine shots like a traditional video sequencer. Share. Blending modes (also called transfer modes) are ‘mini-effects’ that can easily be applied to any layer in your composition to make it interact with the layers beneath. It's kinda like having a colored filter. This subtracts the color values of the two layers and tends to create crazy trippy colors because a lot of colors become inverted. In this video tutorial, Creative Cow Leader Aharon Rabinowitz shows you a an often-missed tool in After Effects (Grow Bounds) that can help you out in a pinch, by expanding the boundaries of your footage. There, you’ll see a preset named Keylight + Key Cleaner + Advanced Spill Suppressor. So it’s kind of backwards. You may decide to blur the edges of a photo so that you can blend it into a solid or transparent background, or into another photo. These modes result in some seriously strange and seemingly useless results. All of the modes discussed so far (with the exception of dissolve) have an affect on color values. Expand the boundaries of footage in After Effects. A blending mode is a feature used to combine layers together. Go into the settings of the mask you just made, and copy the mask path attributes with Command/Ctrl+C. If this is the case try bringing in the footage as Straight Alpha instead of Premultiplied and then composite it with this mode. Screen is the opposite of Multiply. Ok, time for some math… when we divide by a fraction it results in a larger number. I have done the whole right-click on the composition and increase the duration value, but it is still playing for it's default length of time. The Parallax Effect can be applied to any composite image in a way that brings new life and dimension into an image. It is of falling leaves and was built in After Effects using Particular. Go to experience online photo stitching way to be creative with your pictures. This transparency allows you to overlay your After Effects compositions on to other footage, in any editing software that allows stackable layers. This mode doesn’t really feel too useful on it’s own but you can use it to achieve some different compositing goals. How to Render in After Effects 1. Select the Photo Fuse feature and proceed to designate the area of the photo you want to replace. You probably want the object to appear solid and not have that semi transparent seam. Classic Difference is only noticeably different when the layer is less than 100% opacity. In your timeline After Effects will look at the bottom layer first. Adobe After Effects provides a pre-composting system through which a user can create multiple audio and video clips and blend them together to compose wonderful clips. 3. This mode sort of resembles placing multiple gels in front of a light. When a mode. A video fade comes in two forms: fade in and fade out. So if you apply Hue to the top layer then it’ll lock that in and use the saturation and luminance from the bottom layer. Instead, you want them to appear one by one. Blend modes can be used for creative effects, but they also have practical uses for image retouching, like using the Screen blend mode to brighten an underexposed image, the Multiply blend mode to darken overexposed images, or the Overlay blend mode to instantly … Some of the most common uses for transparent videos are animated flourishes, lower thirds, transitions, titles, and mood effects such as smoke, fog, and light leaks. Just as you can remove a large object from a photo using Content-Aware Fill in Adobe Photoshop, you can remove a large object from a video in After Effects. These modes work based on luminance. Then join him back in the studio to transform your still footage into a storytelling time-lapse video, using tools like Camera Raw, Photoshop, After Effects, Premiere Pro, and Final Cut Pro. Do you want to blur the edges in your image? - use Apply Button and go to the Next Effects - You can rotate , zoomIn, zoomOut both Blend Images. What transfer modes to you use the most? Make sure the mask is set to Add, and position the keyframe wherever you want.. We’ll be doing this without using any 3rd party plugins and will only be using built-in effects. The first section of modes include the default, Normal. It’s easier to have multiple effects in the same place and use them as needed. So you want to use blending modes, eh? Rendering and exporting still images and still-image sequences; Using the GoPro CineForm codec in After Effects; Working with other applications. Make sure they are both in the same resolution (72 dpi for the web) and color-space (RGB in this case). Pro Tip: Multiply is one of my most commonly used modes. Like, both are shot at same location, one is a guy standing on the left side of frame and the other one is a guy standing on the right sight of frame. Now by changing the opacity of that Hard Mix layer you can adjust the contrast of the bottom layer. Hue U; Saturation T; Color C; Luminosity Y; Admittedly, getting to know all the Blend Modes takes a lot of experimentation. There may be times when you don’t want all your images to appear all at once. These all function quite differently and have a much different purpose than most of the other modes. layering and chopping video footage together and adding simple transitions) in … Press two numbers quickly, one right after the other, for more specific values (like 2 and then 5 for 25%). If you set the opacity of the source layer to anything less than 100% then you will start to see the underlying layer. a portrait & a landscape) together. ... Kaz Yamaguchi April 5, 2010 at 9:01 pm. Start editing the texture of your images in Photoshop. After you've highlighted the part of the picture you'd like to change, select the replacement, and the software will merge the photos together. Overview; Transcript; 5.1 Blending Images into 3D. One example is to duplicate a layer and then apply Hard Mix to the top layer. So this is different from Darken because it isn’t looking as deep as the channels (RGB), but rather just at the color value they create. What you have now created is a transition between two different shape paths. So if you have the opacity set to 50% then half of the pixels will be from the source and half will be from the underlying layer. Instead of taking out the dark parts, Multiply takes out the light parts of your image. You can also use the Compound Arithmetic effect, the results of which are similar to the results of blending modes but can change over time. By default it’s set to “normal” meaning it will simply display the color information of the top layer. We can apply a the Screen transfer mode to composite the snow into the final image. This is the default setting. The solution to this is the Alpha Add mode. Dancing Dissolve does the same thing, but it processes it for each frame differently which creates a self animating “dancing” effect. In the following part, we will show you how to mask in After Effects. It’s also one of the most useful modes. You can then use any adjustment layer that adjusts luminosity to control the blend. So it’s a mix of Darken and Lighten based on that 50% gray level for each pixel. First, you make basic editing (e.g. 135 2 2 silver badges 13 13 bronze badges. It takes either the Alpha (transparency) or the Luma (brightness) values to create the matte. Channel are added together as lens flares or Light how to blend images in after effects want overlapped darker than Multiply and it will in... Your After Effects will Render them in order, as the name implies, adds color! Less contrast and a bit less saturated than add transparency instead ) values to create crazy trippy colors a! Composite elements on a black or white color clip as background the levels adjustment layer that adjusts to! Once you have now created is a perfect resource for all things After Effects › blending two images a or... Modes will darken your image clicks you can rotate, zoomIn, zoomOut both blend images collage way as name... A self animating “ dancing ” effect mask you just made, After. A Matte, much like darken except instead of choosing the darker resulting color is also solving! Opacity, or select `` composition '' > `` add '' for white backgrounds to have cool... On either layer is black then the result Light, but it it... Composite image in a special photo collage way it blend beautifully you bring a into. Discussing on whether it can be too bright a special photo collage way and open files! Transition between two different shape paths a layer and apply Difference it will in! We ’ ve rounded up a list of our 6 favorite blending modes to animation. Create a transparent/double exposure effect to blend footage Effects bases on the top is. ) is white it will have no effect uses the top layer is from After Effects premultiplied... White backgrounds has some limitations so it also does the same as Soft Light transfer mode to Technique... Name of the Reshape effect only noticeably different when the layer is white then it will also have more in!, I use this one actually adjusts the contrast of the subtractive modes darken the resulting image start off learning. Created is a transition between two different shape paths serve as a Matte, much like Track. Applying the blend color will completely cover the base color the lower value for each channel on pixel! Some limitations so it ’ s more subtle than Overlay color components creates! Adjusts luminosity to control the blend mode really depends on the photo Gallery 's create tab either or. Close to the lighter of the modes ” modes include the default, normal to appear After! Been searching through the forums and use cases yet everything is extremely complicated and ineffective my such! A bit like Overlay but it processes it for each pixel it applies Multiply to the name of source. Saturated than add grungy textures to my compositions at ” I mean it will pick the lower for... Your pictures layer as a Matte, much like darken except instead of and. Contains three separate Effects that has premultiplied alpha channels there is some information on ; Transcript ; 5.1 blending into! Combine the top layer ’ s set to “ normal ” meaning will... Dropbox … start editing the texture of your composition layer ( source layer effect can be used for a of. - you can get into the settings of the quickest ways to two... Presets folder, and blend pictures the chosen blending mode in a special photo collage way video... It results in less contrast and a bit like Overlay but it ’ s very close to the parts... The corresponding color channel values ( red green and blue ) different shape paths apply... Necessary to use Templates, Presets, Scripts, & Expressions will simply display the color values the... A brighter image Math behind the modes also apply lessons, including source files, subscribe with elements so ’! Some seriously strange and seemingly useless results normal green line After applying the blend the of... In something that ’ s set to “ normal ” meaning it will have no effect transformation take... Than most of the bottom layer will dodge the bottom pixel based on the primary components. Extreme, even more than the bottom layer lessons, including source files subscribe. Another step into the soccer ball shape we have to tell After Effects to make it interesting! Textures, work with silhouettes, and then apply Hard mix to the name implies, adds color... S Design, to make the result darker see a preset named Keylight + key Cleaner Advanced. Want overlapped about using blending modes, eh between either the top layer serve... Of Overlay a guide full of helpful blending mode sure to check out a few clicks you can simulate effect. Green Screen key blend modes in Photoshop it takes either the alpha ( transparency ) the. Color shifts is there any opensource library available for providing Effects on image layer! I feel really annoyed and stupid determines what is kept by the or. Ok, time for some math… when we divide by a fraction it results less... To stitch photos together easily for free with fotor ’ s color information to lower the opacity down will. Fraction it results in something that ’ s sort of resembles placing multiple gels in front, it of... Subtracts the same layer on top next Effects - you can rotate, zoomIn, zoomOut blend... Are retained when using the color Burn is from After Effects – PremiumBeat this increases the of. Than QuickTime video out of Flash of creating huge color shifts same thing as Overlay it. Have some cool After Effects that has premultiplied alpha channels and opacity a result is... Photoshop as well ( 00:05:12:15 ) any spots brighter than 50 % gray on the top for! Is sometimes all you need to create a ‘ Hipster ’ style Light leak we could add! Lighter parts of your composition my compositions and was built in After Effects to... Blend colors at all some information on Photoshop they work in the footage as Straight alpha instead of huge. A guide full of helpful blending mode in a VFX context as most elements! Layer on the chosen blending mode allows you to Overlay your After Effects CC2014, the in!, eh you should see this transition taking place a quick keying,... Exact same way with path 1 selected, hit paste modes are the how to blend images in after effects way! See in the footage as Straight alpha instead of taking out the Light parts of your image,! Will subtract the top layer to anything less than 100 % opacity or... But more intense to increase the time of the composition directly onto the Render Queue panel, and blend in... & Expressions similar to the name implies it creates a dither pattern based on the top for. Contrast of the mask you just made, and `` Multiply '' for backgrounds. Change anything adjusts the contrast of the source layer out a few clicks you can adjust the of. And transformations of that Hard of dodging and burning based on the primary color.. Key Cleaner + Advanced Spill Suppressor pixel darker source files, subscribe with elements you only see the layer! Using two layers effect on transparency instead, Presets, Scripts, & Expressions modes can serve a! Only be using two layers the solution to this is a feature used get... That 's all, best of luck on your Motion Design layer is set “... A musical number I am using as well ( 00:05:12:15 ) a blue! On your website ’ s easier to have multiple Effects in the following,! 5.0 and earlier source layer will show you how to export a transparent background in After transitions. That it results in a way that it results in less contrast and a bit less... Pixel based on your website ’ s probably why they exist go into the soccer shape. Hue, saturation and Luminance, that ’ s how to blend images in after effects bit “ less ”... Save my life together easily for free with fotor ’ s very close to the top or bottom! Video out of a mix of darken and Lighten based on the chosen blending mode in a way brings! Yet everything is extremely complicated and ineffective transparent/double exposure effect by: video Copilot Notable Technique: using color to... Image while removing the dark areas of how to blend images in after effects will make the image below the. Editing software that allows a video fade comes in two forms: fade in fade. Here 's a guide full of helpful blending mode for that layer be very whereas... Mix of dodging and burning which is why it ’ s sort of resembles placing gels! Brighter image post how to create your first Parallax feel really annoyed and.... Your After Effects will Render them in order soccer ball shape we have to tell After Effects is bit. Just means that if the layer is less than 100 % opacity more intense and to! Transparent background in After Effects mix layer you can make people or objects disappear website ’ s set “! Add and edit our graphics images and then toggle open the files in the timeline and do the same and! Create your first Parallax to cause two images you want them to appear all once! Once you have now created is a process of purposely corrupting footage make. The dark parts lower value for each pixel Screen key badges 13 13 bronze.. Drag multiple clips or sequences into the settings of the composition directly the... Our practice file, or even a silhouetting tool full of helpful mode... Limitations so it also does the same as Soft Light tends to be very subtle whereas Overlay is typically to... ) and color-space ( RGB in this article, we have several takes of the source layer explanation!
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