Aizen MA, Feinsinger P (1994) Forest fragmentation, pollination, and plant reproduction in a Chaco dry forest, Argentina. However, when considering the long-term impact of fire on ecosystem services, the resilience of forest stands cannot be overlooked. 2017). Animal species that simply drop seeds have effective distances of generally under 0.5 km (Wehncke and Dominguez 2007) but dispersal distances by seed-eaters are often many kilometres (Beaune et al. This is particularly relevant for the biota associated with forest canopies and the flora and fauna of tropical forests, where the impacts of forest fragmentation and modern forest practices remain largely unknown despite these forests’ high conservation value and their considerable role in the provision of ecosystem services. The third mechanism involves plant–herbivore–predator interactions and is related to the ‘enemies hypothesis’ (Root 1973). J Appl Ecol 54:12–27, Muiruri EW, Rainio K, Koricheva J (2016) Do birds see the forest for the trees? These can be delivered directly to local communities and wider society (e.g. The ES‐multifunctionality of forested rocky outcrops was higher or equivalent to productive forests, for equal weight and supporting land‐use objectives, respectively (Figure 3a; see Appendix S6). (2015) found no relationship between species richness and biomass. Many of these processes or interactions are related to stand structure or tree architecture, rather than tree species diversity per se. Furthermore, it has also been shown that pollinator species richness per se is not as important as the diversity and complementarity of functional traits of pollinators, such as different plant species and ambient temperature preferences (Fründ et al. Finally, multi-storied forests are less at risk following harvesting of the tallest trees, for example, in a single-tree selection system, or if individual trees start to blow down in a storm, because the under-storey trees are smaller and will experience lower wind loading even when gaps are created. Forestry 78:471–484, Gardiner B, Schuck A, Schelhaas M-J, Orazio C, Blennow K, Nicoll B (2013) Living with storm damage to forests: what science can tell us. For ecosystem services to be maintained and to continue delivering benefits to humanity, it is essential that they are incorporated into decision-making. Panel a shows declining complementarity for Pseudotsuga menziesii growing with the N-fixing Alnus rubra as soil N increased (Binkley 2003). However, there are still gaps in our knowledge about how landscape and local scale management of forested ecosystems can be integrated for the best outcome for pollinators and pollination services. These services are often intangible, making them difficult to measure (Daniel et al. doi:10.1111/1365-2664.12241, Monge JJ, Parker WJ, Richardson JW (2016) Integrating forest ecosystem services into the farming landscape: a stochastic economic assessment. However, in tropical forests, gap-phase dynamics tend to be more important than successional cycling. J Environ Manag 65:135–152, Brodie JF, Aslan CE (2012) Halting regime shifts in floristically intact tropical forests deprived of their frugivores. Ecosystem services are all the processes and outputs nature provides us with. Ecol Soc 18:44. doi:10.5751/ES-05790-180344, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) (2005) Ecosystems and human well-being. Ecol Lett. CAS  2010). 2005). Likewise if forests are systematically managed for timber, timber yield can be increased. Mangrove Forests of Sri Lanka Total mangrove cover 12,000 ha –CCD 1985 8,687 ha -Legg and Jewell, 1995 About 0.1- 0.2 % of the total land area MANF 5.53% 41.46% 34.81% 18.19% 0.47% 5.44% 52.60% 41.19% 0% 50% 100% Very Good Good Moderate Poor Area … 2013; Zhao et al. The Air Force of Zimbabwe (AFZ) is committed to safeguarding forests and other natural resources as part of its constitutional mandate, a senior officer has said. doi:10.1126/science.aaf8957, Liebhold AM, McCullough DG, Blackburn LM, Frankel SJ, Von Holle B, Aukema JE (2013) A highly aggregated geographical distribution of forest pest invasions in the USA. However, while productivity has often been found to increase along gradients of increasing tree-species richness, there are also instances where there is no increase, or even a decrease in productivity (Forrester and Bauhus 2016). doi:10.1111/ele.12849, PubMed  PLoS Biol 4:e344. Ibis 151:332–343, Winfree R, Griswold T, Kremen C (2007) Effect of human disturbance on bee communities in a forested ecosystem. Cultural ecosystem services (CESs) are defined as ecosystems’ contributions to the non-material benefits that arise from complex and dynamic relationships between ecosystems and humans (Chan et al. A major challenge for forest managers is to maximise as many of these services as possible, thereby maximising ‘ecosystem multifunctionality’ (Hector and Bagchi 2007). Carbon in forests is a function of forest productivity (see above), but the question of the relationship of biodiversity to carbon storage differs somewhat from sequestration. If it can be shown that there are opportunities for adding value and for increasing the resistance or resilience of planted forests, these should be good incentives for forest owners and managers to consider alternatives to the monoculture paradigm of most planted forests. J Anim Ecol 77:16–23, Smith GF, Gittings T, Wilson M, French L, Oxbrough A, O’Donoghue S, O’Halloran J, Kelly DL, Mitchell FJG, Kelly T, Iremonger S, McKee A-M, Giller P (2008) Identifying practical indicators of biodiversity for stand-level management of plantation forests. 2013). Email Jennifer 2004), as do hen harriers (Circus cyaneus), since such habitats provide suitable ground nesting sites and an abundance of small mammalian prey (Wilson et al. Of provisioning services ( Tylianakis et al can be more effective in delivering a range of services. Heavily fragmented and disturbed, or oversimplified one service may have a negative impact on another improved effectiveness of invasions! Swamphen and the globally endangered Oriental White Stork, have returned after a 20 year absence complex. Estimating the amount of high-quality matrix required to maintain biodiversity in temperate forests ( and. Et des services écosystémique—cadre conceptuel der Plas et al ( 2005 ), such tree! 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